The Role of The Enzymes
Enzymes provide a potent, diverse set of specialized tools for food and beverage formulators. In addition to their catalytic prowess-enzymes can speed reactions by more than 1010 times—they can function uniquely to control process time, enhance flavour, improve texture, extend shelf life and decrease the use of chemical food additives.
Found abundantly in nature, these complex globular proteins are used as ingredients and processing aids in food products..
One advantage of enzymes is their high activity, which frequently makes them the most cost effective choice of ingredient. Another is their reputation. "Consumer attitudes are often more positive toward enzymes than toward multi-syllabled, chemical-sounding food additives,"
Enzymes are naturally present in basic foods like wheat and soy unless they are removed or inactivated. For example, amylases, proteases, hemicelluloses, lipases and oxidases influence the entire bread making process. Other food industry segments that rely on enzymes include beverage, cheese, meat and frozen dessert manufacturers.
"When using enzymes for processing food products, it is important to select for high specificity and activity." Good enzyme specificity is crucial. Side reactions can affect the system and sometimes be detrimental to the product taste or texture. High enzyme activity is important to keep the usage low.
Using smaller quantities of enzymes may be desirable. For example, they are proteins that contribute to Maillard browning reactions with reducing sugars. Because they are used in such small quantities, flavour is not usually an issue. However, some enzymes can cause bitterness.
In here,we’ll mention about the industrial enzymes, which play a major role in food industries such as foods(dairy) & beverages, starch sugar & alcohol and brewing industry.
Amylases act on starch (amylose and amylopectin). They split starch into dextrins and sugars by cleaving the a-1,4 glycosidic linkages in the interior of the starch chain. Amylases can be derived from bacteria and fungi. They play a major role in the, food & beverages(baking), brewing, starch, sugar & alcohol industries.
Fungal alpha-amylase:for detoxing and saccharifying starch.
Bacterial alpha-amylase: for starch liquefaction at temperatures up to 90º C. Thermostable bacterial alpha-amylase:for starch liquefaction at temperatures above 90º C.
Also called glucoamylase, this enzyme acts on starch, dextrins and sugars by cleaving the a-1, 4 glycosidic linkages releasing stepwise from the end of the chain. It is widely used in the manufacture of glucose and for conversion of carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. They play a major role in starch sugar & alcohol industries.
Fungal glucoamylase:is capable of hydrolyzing glucosidic linkages of starch.
Glucoamylase and pullulanase blend:for higher glucose yields from starch
Cellulase acts on cellulose molecules by hydrolysing the b-1,4 glycosidic linkages. It largely produces cellobiose, which can ultimately yield glucose units, depending on the characteristic of the enzyme. Cellulases find wide application in the food & beverages industries.
Fungal cellulase:is primarily active on soluble forms of cellulase.
Catalase is the enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide to water and molecular oxygen.Catalase effectively removes the residual hydrogen peroxide, ensuring that the fabric is peroxide-free and mainly used in food industry and also in egg processing with other enzymes.
Glucanase act on b-1,3 and b-1,4 bonds in b-D-glucans. B-glucanases are of particular interest to the brewing industry, where they act on the glucans that impede clarification of wort and filtration of beer.
Thermostable bacterial beta-glucanase:for the hydrolysis of cereal beta-glucan polysaccharides.It reduce hazing and can also affect foaming during storage.
Glucose and hexose oxidases catalyze reactions between glucose and oxygen,
producing gluconolactone and hydrogen peroxide.And,they
are mainly used in baking-food industries
Hemicellulases act on hemicellulose (also called pentosan), a polymer of pentose sugars. They are mainly used in the baking (food & beverages) industry to improve the quality of dough, the softness of the crumb and volume.
Fungal hemicellulase: for the hydrolysis of galactomannan gums and soluble cellulose.
Lipase breaks down natural lipids and oils to free fatty acids and glycerol.In otherwise,Lipase is usefull in baking and egg processing with other enzymes.
Pancreatic Lipase: hydrolyzes insoluble fats and fatty acid esters to yield monoglycerides, glycerides, glycerol and free fatty acids.
Microbial lipases:for fat hydrolysis and flavor development.
This enzyme group has a heterogeneous collection of several activities in varying proportion. Pectinases act on pectins and their derivatives and play a major role in the food & beverages industry.In fruit drinks,pectinase is a unique enzyme for the peeling of citrus fruit.It can be used to produce fresh fruit segments from oranges and grapefruit and are less likely to damage fruits than conventional cutting. Segments look better and there is less production wastage. pectinases cut pectin chains to lower viscosity,while glucose oxidase removes dissolved oxygen,decrasing oxidative browning
Proteases are enzymes that act on proteins and convert them to peptides and free amino acids. They play an important role in the food & beverages – baking industries. Depending on the application acid, neutral and alkaline proteases are available.
Rennet, which is biologically prepared from the Mucor strain, is used as a milk coagulant in the preparation of cheese. The food & beverages industry, specifically the dairy industry, has accepted microbial rennet as the next best thing to natural rennet.
Tannase is an esterase-based formulation that hydrolyses the acyl esters of tannins, making tannins more soluble at a lower temperature and pH. They are used in the production of instant tea(for solubility)in the food & beverages industry.
Xylanases cleave chains of b-1,4-xylosidic linkages in Xylans. They are mainly used in the food & beverages- baking industries.