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Baking with Glucose Oxidase

 

The desire to find bromate replacers has spurred a renewed interest in dough-improving enzymes. Glucose and hexose oxidases catalyze reactions between glucose and oxygen, producing gluconolactone and hydrogen peroxide. Peroxides then oxidize thiol groups into disulfide bonds, strengthening and improving dough handling.

Some feel that there are better bromate replacers than these enzymes though, because the reaction does not always produce the right form of gluconolactone In addition, glucose oxidase is expensive and cannot alone replace bromate. However, it can help function as a bromate replacer when used in addition to other dough improvers.

Lipoxygenase mediates hard wheat flour bleaching via carotenoid oxidation. Peroxy radicals propagate oxidation of low molecular weight S-H compounds, crosslinking gluten protein molecules and improving dough strength and mixing tolerance. Wheat lipoxygenase will only oxidize free fatty acids, which is why enzyme active soy flour has long been available as a dough conditioner. Soy contains type 2 lipoxygenase that oxidizes triglycerides containing linoleic acid.