Enzymes for Fruit Juice and Bread
An enzyme has developed that can be used for fruit liquefaction and as gluten substitutes in bread baking. It consists of several plant enzymes, including pectinase, cellulase, hemicellulase, arabinase and rhamnogalacturonase that are used for processing fruit into fruit juices.That enzyme performs in the same manner as gluten, which is used for giving bread its structure.
Juice processing and bread baking may seem to have little in common. But both operations use enzymes and both can benefit from employing the latest developments in enzyme technology.
That new enzyme help juice producers and bakers improve the economies and quality of their processing. Juice producers can maximize yield by using enzymes for fruit liquefaction, and bakers can use new enzymes to save on the amount of gluten they add to their bread formulas. For years,producers of fruit juice have been adding pectinases to their pressed juice to clarify it. About six years ago, they started adding macerating enzymes to fruit pomace in order to extract additional soluble solids. Macerating enzymes have included pectinase and possibly hemicellulases and cellulase.
In the past few years, some producers have adapted a liquefaction process in which the pomace is almost completely liquefied. Only a small percentage of fruit matter, including the seeds (by choice), is not converted to liquid and soluble solids in this process. A complex enzyme system;contains pectinase, cellulase, hemicellulase, arabinase and rhamnogalacturonase. Amylase also may be used if the presence of starch indicates it is needed.
Instead of operating at cold temperatures, as in other processes, the liquefaction process is performed at warm temperatures, which allows the enzymes to work more effectively. Decanter/centrifuge systems remove insolubles more efficiently, and there is greater throughput in membrane filter systems. Yields can be as high as 215 to 225 gallons per ton. Although recent developments in fruit liquefaction systems offer very high yields, cold maceration processes still dominate the apple juice industry. This is mainly due to the apparent higher quality juice the process offers.It is a highly advanced enzyme that employs technology similar to the hot liquefaction process while adapting it for treatment temperatures as low degrees for as little as one to three hours of enzyme contact time.
The new enzyme,to help bakers cut down on the amount of gluten they must add to their bread formulas. Gluten is added to compensate for variations in the quality (strength) of flour. Gluten, the insoluble protein in flour, forms a matrix that helps create the overall structure of bread. Its presence is crucial in bread-making. The enzymes and other functional ingredients, such as specialized flour in that enzyme, help hydrolyze pentosans and mimic gluten's functionality. Pentosans can bind many times their weight in water, which impedes the dough development in baking. Xylanases, or pentosanases, hydrolyze these high molecular weight polysaccharides.
If a baker normally adds 5% gluten to a dough, he can apply 0.1% to 0.2% of the enzyme to the mix and reduce the amount of gluten to 2% to 3%.
COMPARISON OF YIELD USING VARIOUS APPLE PROCESSES (before filtration)
Process Peels and cores slurry (B) Whole apple (B)
Traditional 142-150 160-175
Mashing 170-180 190-210
Liquefaction 215+ 225+
B = after pressing and clarification
Note: Yields are expressed as gallons per ton, adjusted for fiber-glucose
conversion and standardized to 11.0 !degrees^ BX. Brix can range between 10-17
!degrees^; 11- 11.5 !degrees^ BX is considered standard single strength.